Catalog: Digital Commons at Pace - New Repository Articles
Understanding the Relationship between Perceived Bonding and Stress in Parents of Young Children: A Study of Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting Behavior
This study explored the way in which intergenerational transmission of parenting behavior takes place in parents of young children. Specifically, it explored how one's level of perceived parental bonding with their own parents affects their perceived amount of parental stress when they become parents themselves. Participants included 109 mothers and father who had at least one child under the age of 12. Findings were mixed, and indicated that there was a significant interaction between parental care and parental control. Specifically, findings showed that individuals who perceived their parents as both caring and overprotective or controlling, experienced the least amount of parental stress. Additionally, it was found that one's perceived amount of paternal care was significantly related to fewer reported parent child dysfunctional interactions. However, perceived maternal and paternal care and control were not significantly related to currently experienced total stress or parental distress. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. ^
Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) represents growth in the aftermath of an extremely stressful event beyond one's previous level of adaptation, psychological functioning, or life awareness (Zoeliner & Maercker, 2006). The idea of personal growth found in suffering is explored from early philosophical roots; through existential psychological theory and preventative psychiatry; to modern day empirical research on PTG theory, process, assessment, correlates, and clinical application. Through administration of surveys to college and graduate students, the current research explored the various mediating, moderating, and predictive relationships between PIG and related variables of demographic information, personality characteristics, and religion and spirituality_ Contrary to what was hypothesized, results of the statistical analyses did not indicate a significant gender difference in overall, or domain-specific, PTG. Of all the personality variables, only extraversion and optimism significantly correlated with PTG, and pessimism was found to indirectly affect the likelihood of PTG. Religiousness alone significantly inversely predicted PTG, whereas spirituality alone, or combined religiosity and spirituality, did not significantly predict PTG. These results have theoretical and practical implications relevant to researchers and clinicians alike.^
The Effect of the Expectation of Monetary and Verbal Awards on Creativity: A Cross-Cultural Examination
A total of 132 college students from the United States and China were recruited to examine the effects of monetary and verbal rewards on creativity and motivation. Based on past research, it was hypothesized that an economic incentive would negatively affect one's intrinsic motivation, which subsequently would minimize creativity; however, a reputation-based incentive may not necessarily be detrimental to intrinsic motivation and creativity, especially among Chinese participants. This study also sought to examine which culture produced more creative work, with the hypothesis being that participants from an independent culture, such as the United States, would produce more creative work than those from an interdependent culture, such as China. The results partially supported these hypotheses. Economic incentive and reputation-based incentive were found to be both detrimental to one's intrinsic motivation in both cultures, but not necessarily creativity. Contrary to the stated hypothesis, the products produced by participants from China were more creative and original than those of the American counterparts. Findings from this research will assist in future studies in exploring how to motivate individuals to be creative in different cultures.^
Post 9/11, Sikh Americans became particularly susceptible to discrimination due to often being misidentified as Arab American or Muslim, and subsequently assumed by some to be associated with terrorism. Research has demonstrated that discrimination experienced by people of color can have a variety of negative effects on their physical and mental health. However, the discrimination experiences of Sikh Americans have not yet been captured utilizing a quantitative method in the psychology literature. The present study conceptualized religious identity as being comprised of both a psychological dimension (i.e., in-group ties, in-group affect, and centrality) and behavioral aspect (i.e., engaging in Sikh religious practices). The relationships between religious identity (both psychological and behavioral), perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being (specifically, life satisfaction and resilience) were examined using a quantitative method in a sample of 228 Sikh American adults who self-identified as South Asian and Sikh. In addition, this study investigated whether religious identity moderated the effects of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being. Participants completed an online survey comprised of the Lifetime Exposure scale of the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Scale—Community Version, a multi-dimensional measure of social identity, items measuring the frequency in which Sikh principles and practices were followed, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Results revealed that individuals who had a stronger psychological identification as Sikh reported significantly higher satisfaction with their lives (p = .000). The behavioral aspect of Sikh identity was a marginally significant predictor of both life satisfaction (p = .055) and resilience (p = .091). Higher perceived discrimination scores significantly predicted lower life satisfaction scores (p = .004). The behavioral aspect of Sikh identity and perceived discrimination had a significant, positive relationship ( p = .003). There were no moderating effects found for either the psychological or behavioral dimensions of religious identity on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being. Given the underrepresentation of Sikh Americans in the psychology literature, this study shed some light on this population's discrimination experiences and their identity. The major findings of this study suggest that Sikh Americans with a stronger behavioral identity experience or are more aware of discrimination; individuals who reported more discrimination also reported lower life satisfaction. However, individuals with a stronger psychological identity (e.g., sense of belonging and similarity with other Sikhs, positive feelings about being Sikh) reported having higher life satisfaction. Given that Sikh Americans are particularly vulnerable to discrimination, it is important for practitioners to develop an awareness of the complexity of the Sikh identity, the unique discrimination experiences they face, and identify factors such as strong psychological identity that may minimize the negative effects of discrimination.^
Understanding the "Manic Defense": An Examination of the Use of Defense Mechanisms among Depressed and Manic Outpatients
Through examining relationships between manic and depressive symptom endorsement and defense mechanism use, this study aims to provide empirical support for the manic defense construct. Participants included 176 adults seeking individual psychotherapy services at a low-fee outpatient clinic affiliated with a private urban university. Though findings do not support the proposed hypotheses, significant results were found with regard to relationships between defense style and specific defense employment among individuals who endorse symptoms of mania, depression, both depression and mania, and neither depression nor mania. In general, immature defense employment was found to correspond with higher levels of manic and depressive symptom endorsement. Depression was found to be more highly related to immature defense style when experienced in combination with mania, than when experienced without mania. Additionally, manic individuals demonstrated significantly greater use of neurotic defenses than depressed individuals. These findings and their implications are discussed. Findings with regard to use of specific defense mechanisms are also reported and discussed.^
Adolescent Depression and Individuation, Parental Representation and Stages of Ego Identity Among Female High School Students
Abstract not available.^
Research shows that parenting behaviors and parental religiosity are both variables that are related to child emotional and behavioral development. However, there is limited research on the relationship between parenting behaviors and the development of children in the Orthodox Jewish community, especially in the examination of positive child outcomes. This study was informed by the Parent Developmental Theory (PDT; Mowder, 2005) and the domains of positive and negative parenting behaviors identified within. Child developmental outcomes were examined for the presence of externalizing problematic behaviors, internalizing problematic behaviors, and adaptive skills.^ For the current study, 29 participants completed a demographic questionnaire (including a self-rating of religious adherence), the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire – Revised (PBIQ-R), and the Parent Rating Scales of the Behavioral Assessment for Children – 2nd Edition (BASC-2). Findings revealed that in this sample of Orthodox Jewish parents, (a) parenting behaviors involved in the PDT domains of Bonding and General Welfare and Protection were significantly negatively associated with child externalizing problematic behaviors and (b) parenting behaviors involved in the PDT domains of Bonding, Education, General Welfare and Protection, Responsivity, and Sensitivity were significantly positively associated with child overall adaptive skills and specific adaptive behaviors involved in adaptability, social skills, and activities of daily living. Exploratory analysis of the association between self-identified level of religious adherence to parenting behaviors and child outcomes produced non-significant results. The research results and limitations of the current study are discussed, along with implications for the field of school-clinical child psychology.^
This study examined the relationship between defense style and adolescent separation-individuation, and predicted an individual's primary defense style would be associated with aspects of the separation-individuation process. Successful progress toward individuation would be indicated by high levels of identity formation and the development of ego ideals. Lack of progress would be indicated by depressive reactions and unhealthy parenting relationships. 181 females and 62 males seeking psychological treatment at an urban university clinic (M age=24.67) were administered self-report measures. Data was examined using bivariate-correlations, MANOVAs, and a mediation analysis. Significant positive correlations were found between higher-order defense style and individuation. Lower-order internalizing defense style negatively correlated with individuation and positively correlated with depressive reactions. A mediation analysis demonstrated that defense style and identity factors were mediated by depressive reactions, but not unhealthy parenting relationships. This studies support the finding that defense styles play a role in assisting the adolescent navigate the separation-individuation process.^
This study was an effort to explore and expand the research in the field regarding the credibility of self-report measures when measuring psychopathic-like traits in children and adolescents. Some clinical research efforts have been devoted to developing screening indicators to ascertain whether a more comprehensive assessment of psychopathy traits might be advisable. This study examined the relationships between the abbreviated Psychopathy Content Scale (P-16; Salekin, Ziegler, Larrea, Anthony, & Bennett, 2003) taken from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon, 1993) with performance and self-report based measures. Findings supported the convergent validity of the P-16 as a potential screener of psychopathic-like traits in youth. The strongest relationships were found when using the P-16 Total Scale score. Furthermore, using the P-16 cut off score of 10 or higher yielded the most predictable results. It was found that those adolescents that scored high in psychopathy were between 6 to 7 percent of the total inpatient adolescent sample. Conclusions showed that it is of upmost importance to obtain a clearer picture of those psychopathic traits that might develop early in childhood in order to delineate a more homogenous subgroup of children with conduct problems that may be at risk for psychopathy. The assessment of psychopathic-like features with vulnerable youth can then help facilitate prevention, early intervention, and treatment. ^
Abstract not available.^
Roadmap to Recovery: A Strategic Plan for Westchester County Government to Increase Office Occupancy and Revitalize the I-287 Corridor
Health Professionals’ Attitude Towards Substance Abusers : A Part of the Health Professionals’ Value and Belief System Which Prevails in Society
One Giant Heap for Mankind: The Need for National Legislation or Agency Action to Regulate Private Sector Contributions to Orbital Debris
This article will explain the dynamics of the space environment, examine current space law and its shortcomings both internationally and nationally, and present reasoned resolutions to the issue at hand including the use of petitions for action by United States government agencies and the encouragement of legislative action. This article will also address certain positive and negative aspects of adopting debris-regulating law. Above all, the United States government and the American people should be made aware of the serious issues concerning the continued use of space by the private sector, and this article seeks to facilitate that conversation. Through this awareness, the United States can address the current legal deficiencies and provide an example of the focus that should be given to space debris law.
The role of green buildings in mitigating climate change has thus become a hot topic. This literature has begun to elicit change within corporations pursuing third party certification of their corporate buildings and campuses. Perhaps the success of discrete green building projects in mitigating climate change compared to the failure of international regulatory bodies to reach consensus for meaningful change is due to the publicity and, in turn, profits associated with certification by a third party green building rating system. In addition to reduced GHG emissions, reduced runoff, reduced maintenance costs, and positive publicity of green buildings for the project developer, green building rating systems also stimulate local commerce and tax revenue streams for municipalities. Additionally, green building rating systems combat greenwashing and ignorance in the marketplace amongst consumers who try to make informed and responsible decisions but do not have the resources to research the validity of claims that a product or building is sustainable. In brief, while municipalities can take actions to realize these benefits, there are right and wrong ways to go about the adoption of third party green building systems, and cities that do not navigate their course wisely will see their legislation stricken down and their intentions frustrated by the courts.
This Article explores the potential for such agreements to address climate change on a regional level by analyzing the parallels between the agreements, the nature and limits of the executive power used to create them, and the scope of enforcement available under them. Section II briefly examines the present state of climate warming and its attendant impacts, while Section III highlights the relative failure of current national and international approaches to mitigating climate change. Section IV focuses on the recent rise of environmental regional agreements in the United States, specifically those agreements to which the State of New York has been integral. Section V then explores how the use of executive authority by the Governor of New York has engendered limited success—primarily through the greenhouse gas reductions committed to and realized—in these agreements. The Article concludes by considering the way these achievements can serve as examples for the creation of a federal or, ideally, international agreement to combat climate change.
Beef Products, Inc. v. ABC News: (Pink) Slimy Enough to Determine the Constitutionality of Agricultural Disparagement Laws?
This Comment analyzes the likelihood of whether BPI’s case against ABC News will be decided on the merits, whether South Dakota’s agricultural disparagement statute will be upheld as constitutional, and thus the likelihood that other states’ statutes will be struck down, thereby preserving the public’s freedom to question and criticize the safety of our food system. First, Part I offers a brief introduction to agricultural disparagement laws, their historical application, and BPI’s pending lawsuit. Next, Part II reviews the context of the enactment of agricultural disparagement laws, summarizes the common elements of these laws, and discusses Texas Beef Group v. Winfrey. Parts III (A) and (B) discuss BPI v. ABC News and analyze whether the facts of the case are sufficient to permit a decision on the merits. Part III (C) analyzes the constitutionality of South Dakota’s agricultural disparagement statute under the First Amendment of the United States Constitution. Finally, Part IV concludes that BPI’s case will probably fail on the merits, and that South Dakota’s agricultural disparagement statute is likely unconstitutional under the First Amendment.
Gubernatorial leadership is the single most important indicator of how sustainable New York will be when it comes to issues of environmental protection and conservation. In preparing for the Kerlin Lecture, one of the things that struck me is that New York governors for at least the last thirty years have consistently identified the critical economic, social, and environmental challenges facing this state. Is it simply political rhetoric to decry that the state is in terrible fiscal shape, that programs need to be funded to help those is need, and that we must pay attention to stewarding the environment today to secure tomorrow? The fact remains that these are the three major legs of the sustainability stool and the measure of gubernatorial leadership is not in the lofty goals that were set forth, but rather in what was actually accomplished. This Kerlin Lecture focuses on the broader theme of gubernatorial leadership and sustainability rather than perhaps the narrower reference to the environment, to reflect what in my opinion has enabled the global community to address core environmental challenges by forming alliances with other interest groups that might not have necessarily believed there was a logical affinity to strengthening environmental protections.