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The Developmental Outcome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants at 18 Months

The objective of this study was to identify perinatal variables and demographic characteristics that influence cognitive, language, and behavioral development in very/extremely preterm and low birth weight infants at the corrected age of 18 months. An additional study goal was to explore the interaction of language specifically with cognitive functioning, attention, and perinatal and behavioral characteristic for this population. The study consisted of a total of 117 participants, born weighing less than 1250g and at less than 28 weeks gestation. Outcome measures included cognitive functioning and expressive and receptive language as measured by the Bayley-III. Behavioral functioning was assessed based on parent report using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5). Correlational, multivariate analysis of variance, a hierarchical cluster analysis, and cross tabulations were completed to examine relationships and membership associations based on performance and demographic and perinatal variables. The demographic variables were gender, socioeconomic status and minority status. The cognitive and language functioning, with significant differences in reported behavior problems, and demographic and perinatal characteristics among the groups. The following were identified as demographic and perinatal variables significantly associated with group membership; SES, the presence of NH severe grades, chorioamnionitis, and BPD. The effect size of these variables were all measured as moderate. Many behavioral differences were identified on the CBCL (1.5-5) significantly associated with group cognitive and language functioning, with significant differences in reported behavior problems, and demographic and perinatal characteristics among the groups. The following were identified as demographic and perinatal variables significantly associated with group membership; SES, the presence of IVH severe grades, chorioamnionitis, and BPD. The effect size of these variables were all measured as moderate. Many behavioral differences were identified on the CBCL (1.5-5) significantly associated with group membership including; anxiety problems, pervasive developmental disability (PDD), total problems, anxiety/depression, somatic complaints, emotional reaction, withdrawn, attention, internalizing behaviors, and externalizing behaviors. Children with low cognitive and language scores were more likely to have had a serious health condition, low SES, and more reported behavioral problems on the CBCL (1.5-5). Identifying children with these particular perinatal and demographic profiles may benefit intervention timing, focus, design, and improve later outcome.^

Categories: Books

The Impact of Maternal Incarceration on Children: The Role of Contact During Incarceration

Rates of incarceration in the United States have been increasing at unprecedented rates. The number of parents in prison continues to increase over time, and the number of mothers in prison is increasing at a faster and faster rate. As a result, a greater and greater number of children are being impacted by the consequences of having a parent who is incarcerated.^ The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the type, frequency and quality of mother-child contact during maternal incarceration on child school engagement and psychological adjustment, while taking into account the mothers' social support and attachment relationship to her child. The study used a number of self-report measures that were administered to a sample of previously incarcerated mothers (n = 46).^ Results indicate that more frequent and positive mother-caregiver and mother-child phone contact and mother-child visits correlated with better child psychological adjustment. Social support was an important variable. Higher ratings of mothers' perceived social support correlated with speaking more frequently to her child's caregiver, higher ratings of communication and teamwork with her child's caregiver, and fewer reported barriers to in-person visits. Additionally, higher levels of mothers' perceived social support correlated with higher levels of child school engagement. Lastly, higher levels of mothers' attachment and trust scores correlated with and significantly predicted higher levels of child school engagement and lower psychological symptoms, and therefore, better child psychological adjustment.^ The study provides evidence for the importance of policy recommendations to improve child outcome during maternal incarceration. Recommendations include providing the opportunity for mothers to maintain contact with their child(ren) and their child(ren)'s caregiver; provide counseling services to children and caregivers to help them manage the separation; and provide resources to help ensure stable caregiving arrangements for children with mothers who are incarcerated.^

Categories: Books

A new history of Shinto / John Breen and Mark Teeuwen

Catalog: New Book Titles - Sat, 11/22/2014 - 15:00
Breen, John, 1956-
Categories: Books

The conquest of the Russian Arctic / Paul R. Josephson

Catalog: Law Library New Titles - Fri, 11/21/2014 - 09:01
Josephson, Paul R.
Categories: Books
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