Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Student-Faculty Research: Bridging Information Systems and Strategic Management
Development for Teachers in a Mixed Reality Environment: Skills to Support Positive Behavior in K-12 Students
Emotional Availability, Parenting Behavior Perceptions, Child Temperament and Parent Personality Characteristics in Mothers and Their 8 to 16 Month Olds
The aim of this study was to examine patterns of emotional availability (EA) among 30 mothers and their 8 to 16 month-old infants, and to identify individual and contextual factors associated with the different patterns as well as mothers' views on parenting behaviors. The mother-infant dyad is conceptualized as a system, which incorporates emotional transactions and communications. This system incorporates parent and child factors, which interact with each other on many levels. It was expected that maternal emotional availability would be significantly associated with values and perceptions of positive parenting behaviors, as well as mothers' positive personality characteristics. Further, it was expected that child emotional availability would be associated with child temperament factors. Infants and mothers participated in a videotaped play session which was coded using the Emotional Availability Scales-4 th Edition (Biringen, 2008). The expectation that maternal EA would be positively related to positive parenting behavior perceptions was partially supported. A key finding of this study was that the values mothers reported for their parenting behavior were also observed with the EA observational system. In addition, by exploring effect sizes, moderate relationships were found between maternal personality factors and EA. Further, significant relationships were found between maternal EA factors and child temperament. In an interaction with personality and maternal emotional availability, features of child temperament were found to evoke different parenting responses from caregivers with different personality characteristics, specifically levels of neuroticism. In the current study, the maternal personality trait neuroticism and child positive affectivity differentially corresponded to how mothers respond to their children as measured by the Emotional Availability Scales sensitivity. ^
The Influence of Parenting Behaviors on the Development of Adaptive Behaviors in 3 to 5 Year-Old Children
The transition into the preschool years is often the first time that a young child moves out of the home environment and away from a primary caregiver, and is asked to adapt to a new environment. This transition raises questions regarding the process during which children gain the skills necessary to be successful in this new developmental stage. In taking attachment theory and parenting constructs into consideration, three major concepts arise: bonding, responsivity, and sensitivity. The goal of this study was to examine how these three factors play into the development of school readiness skills and adaptability. ^ In order to achieve an understanding of parenting factors as they relate to the development of childhood adaptability, parents of children ages 3 to 5 years were asked to rate their own perception of the importance of parenting behaviors in their parenting role as well as their child's adaptability. Parenting behaviors were measured via the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (Mowder, 2005) and child outcomes were measured via the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). A total of 35 parents participated in the research. ^ Results indicate that all three parenting constructs are significantly related to the development of overall adaptability in young children as well as the development of social skills and functional communication skills. When combined into a single model, bonding, responsivity, and sensitivity accounted for 23.7% of the variance in general adaptability. Thus, behaviors associated with these parenting characteristics are viable as a means of intervention even beyond the stage of infancy. ^
Community ecologists, who consider the interdependence among organizations of different forms (Hannan and Freeman, 1986), have argued that that legitimacy can flow between organizational forms if they are sufficiently related or proximate in cognitive space (Ruef, 2000). De alio legitimation, the process by which an established population can facilitate the institutionalization of an emergent population, greatly minimizes the time period needed for the new form to achieve a taken-for-granted status (Dobrev, 2001). While some studies have looked at how this process operates across populations of organizations within the commercial sector, no study has looked at how this legitimacy might travel between populations of organizations which vary in their goals, from those following a purely commercial mission to those organizations which follow a social mission, or social enterprises (Mair and Martí, 2006; Phills et al., 2008). Our study fills this gap. Utilizing data from three major social entrepreneurship foundations – Ashoka, Schwab, and Skoll – as well as from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, we study the emergence of social entrepreneurship relative to commercial entrepreneurship in three countries: Brazil, Mexico, and India. We show that there is a relationship between the traditional commercial entrepreneurship and the growth of social entrepreneurship. However, varying institutional environments between countries impacts the extent to which social entrepreneurship and commercial entrepreneurship co-evolve.
NYC Budget Cuts: A Counter-productive Method to Effective Government-nonprofit Contracting Relationships?
This study examines the relationship between New York City budget cuts and the expenditure of human service nonprofits specifically involved in the government contracting relationship. With a focus on the Department for the Aging (DFTA), I examine nonprofits that provide a variety of services to the aging population on behalf of the DFTA. Correlations and regressions are presented examining the relationship between DFTA budget and nonprofit spending. The results of my analysis do not indicate a positive relationship between these two variables.