Catalog: Digital Commons at Pace - New Repository Articles
This study explores a broadly defined concept of self, including personal and cultural identity, and their relationship to psychopathology. The sample consisted of 162 individuals who sought treatment at an urban based clinic. All participants completed a background questionnaire, the Profile for Adolescent Depression and Individuation (PADI) assessing types if depression, counter-depressive strategies and progress toward individuation and identity formation, the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS), the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS), Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism (HVIC), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Self-representation, a measure of success or failure of the separation-individuation process, was most strongly related to worldview, individualistic and collectivistic values. Self-representation, worldview, and affirmation, known as positive feelings about one's ethnicity, were the strongest predictors of psychological outcomes. ^
The Classification of Un-preprocessed ECG Waveforms through the Application of the Hierarchical Temporal Memory Model
Normal and abnormal cardiac function of the human heart can be analyzed through the application of ECG waveform processing and evaluation. Although traditionally the interpretation of these waveforms remains largely a manual effort, as computing power has increased, so too has the application of computational methods for ECG evaluation and classification. One computational method previously applied was the Artificial Neural Network but its application required the addition of signal pre-processing and feature extraction. Recently, a new computational model, Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM), has become available for research. This model itself is an attempt to replicate the structural and algorithmic properties of the neocortex of the human brain, thus allowing the utilization of images in both the learning and test databases. It should be noted, current HTM research has advanced from the development of vision hierarchies applied to the recognition of simple line pictographs to vision hierarchies capable of pattern recognition employing photographic images. This study advances the state-of-the-art in ECG waveform classification by developing a system that outperforms currently available classifiers. Furthermore, it advances our understanding of the HTM classification model by gaining a greater understanding of how its various components influence the model’s ability to learn, together with its correlation to human learning and by showing it can be successfully applied to the classification of waveforms.^
Women's Gender Role Orientation and Attitudes toward Family and Occupational Roles: Influences of their Perceptions of Maternal Gender Role Orientation and Protection
Attitudes about family and occupation are influenced by gender roles and a relationship between mother-daughter gender role attitudes has been empirically established. In addition, the significant impact of maternal care and protection on daughters' overall development has been documented. The current investigation examined the associations between women's perceptions of maternal gender role orientation, care, and protection, and their attitudes towards family and occupational roles. Furthermore, the association between these variables and mothers' level of education and employment status was explored. Participants (231 females, aged 18 to 30 years), completed the Attitudes toward Women Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Orientation to Occupational-Family Integration scale. Results demonstrated that women's gender role orientation is associated with their perceptions of maternal gender role orientation. Augmenting prior research, this study found that perception of maternal overprotection was associated with decreased perception of maternal egalitarian gender role attitudes, while perception of maternal care was associated with increased perception of maternal egalitarian gender role attitudes. Results replicated prior findings that women with highly educated or full-time employed mothers were likely to endorse egalitarian gender role attitudes. Adding to previous research, results demonstrated that these women endorsed an egalitarian orientation toward family and occupational roles and perceived their mothers as endorsing egalitarian gender role attitudes. Regression analyses revealed women's own gender role orientation was significantly predictive of their own attitudes toward family and occupational roles. Implications for parenting, as well as for school and clinical psychology, are discussed. ^
Data integration is a critical component of enterprise system integration, and XML data validation is the foundation for sound data integration of XML-based information systems. Since B2B e-commerce relies on data validation as one of the critical components for enterprise integration, it is imperative for financial industries and e-commerce systems to face this complex integration challenge. Due to the complexity of the validation process and the need for flexibility in supporting validation requirements in a reusable way, such validations are usually based on declarative XML schemas and are separated from the applications’ business logic proper. XML data depends on special schemas like Schematron, which is the most expressive for semantic co-constraints. ^ However, Schematron’s design and expressiveness, based on Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT), have been considerably limited by its current implementation. It is also difficult to extend it to cover new constraints since the XSLT implementation of Schematron lacks support for straightforward invocation by external APIs. Furthermore, the current implementation cannot take advantage of the information derived from XML syntactic validation because it separates semantic and syntactic validations. This separation possibly leads to the loss of information derived from syntax validation, which leads to incorrect results for semantic validation of XML documents. ^ This research overcomes the aforementioned limitations by proposing an algorithm for integrated syntactic (based on DTD and XSD) and semantic (based on Schematron) validations, and by presenting a reusable software component implementing this integrated validation process. This new validation component expands on the capabilities of Schematron v1.5/ISO and is implemented with DOM Level 3 XPath using Java J2SE 7. This component can also interact with its environment with event-driven loose-coupling, which is necessary for its seamless integration with its containing applications. The primary advantage of this component is its high extensibility for working as a test-bed for research on supporting new co-constraints and dynamic constraints across multiple XML documents. The result of this research can be utilized in various industry domains including e-commerce, government, and financial industries for XML constraint validation. ^
An Evaluation of the Application of Stylometry and the Keystroke Biometric to Identity Verification of Online Test-Takers
The 2008 Federal Higher Education Opportunity Act requires institutions of higher learning to make greater digital verification efforts to assure that students of record are those actually accessing the systems and taking exams in online courses by adopting verification technologies as they become more ubiquitous. In order to address this problem, keystroke and stylometry biometric systems were investigated with the goal of developing a system of authenticating (verifying) test-takers’ identities in an online environment. Raw data were collected from actual course-related exams taken by 40 students enrolled in a university course. An evaluation of the performance of the keystroke and stylometry systems with respect to text length, number of subjects, and number of samples was made. The results were compared to determine if authorship could be sufficiently delineated through variations between subjects, and the degree of variability within a subject’s writing and keystroke patterns. ^
Mainframe is used for hosting large commercial databases, transaction servers and applications that require a greater degree of reliability, scalability and security. Customer Information Control System (CICS) is a mainframe software framework for implementing transaction services. It is designed for rapid, high-volume online processing. In order to design, develop and test new functionalities and enhancements to the existing software applications running on the mainframe, each project requires a separate CICS development region. There is a huge cost associated with the degree to which the various components of the mainframe CICS infrastructure can be expended. Other related costs incurred are the maintenance fees and support expenses. This basically limits the ability of an organization to expand their infrastructure frequently, and hence the amount of development work is limited to what their existing mainframe CICS resources can support. This study attempts to support the development work for multiple new or enhancement projects in a single CICS region without compromising the integrity of the code. ^ We present a unique method to create several instances of “virtual” regions within a single CICS region where each of the virtual ones uses its own versions of programs and files or common programs and files. RACF, an IBM security controls program that provides access controls and auditing on the dedicated CICS region, can be applied to the virtual regions along with the CICS authorization security. This solution has been tested with successful results and would enable mainframe-CICS users to develop multiple development initiatives concurrently within a single physical CICS region, hence the proposed methodology not only improve the use of existing infrastructure without incurring significant expenses but also maintain the data integrity as well. ^ The method is validated by a series of experiments for the functions, security, and system resource usages. The experiments show that the proposed method follows the basic operational principles of CICS and the creation of several instances of virtual regions would enable the mainframe users to support multiple development initiatives without expanding on their existing infrastructure. A survey with select mainframe domain experts also confirms that the method is practical, efficient and important in enabling the mainframe users to perform concurrent development work for several projects in a single CICS region. ^
Investigation of the Relationships Among Trauma Exposure, Parental Representations, and Post-Trauma Symptoms
According to Breslau (1998), lifetime prevalence of traumatic exposure in community samples was found to range from 36.7% to 92.2% while lifetime estimates of PTSD range from 5.0% to 18.3%. Prior research has identified trauma type and attachment as variables that predict PTSD diagnosis and/or symptom severity. The aim of the current study is to examine symptom presentation across a broad range of traumatic events and by exploring how trauma type influences the relationship between attachment and symptom severity. ^ Six hundred and nineteen individuals seeking psychological services at an outpatient clinic completed questionnaires assessing their interpretation of their relationship with their parents, exposure to various traumatic events, and PTSD related psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, anxiety-related disorders, depression, traumatic stress, affective depression, cognitive depression, physiological depression, negative relationships, thought disorders, and social detachment. Questionnaires included the Inventory of Parental Representations (IPR) (Hart, 1992), the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (Morey, 1991), and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) (Foa, 1995). The majority of participants in this study were young adult females who have been exposed to one or more traumatic events. ^ Sexual assault was found to be more highly associated with a diagnosis of PTSD than the other trauma groups studied. It was also more highly associated with PAI anxiety-related disorders, traumatic stress, depression, physiological depression, and thought disorders than the remaining five trauma types (accident/fire/explosion, natural disasters, life-threatening illness, sexual contact before age 18, and non-sexual assault). ^ Results showed generally higher levels of post-trauma symptoms were associated with negative attachments and lower levels of symptoms associated with positive attachments to mother and father. In addition, trauma type was found to partially moderate the relationship between parental representations and trauma symptoms. ^
Roger I. Abram’s article on public financing of sports stadiums is an unedited portion of Chapter 9 from Abram’s forthcoming book, Playing Tough: The World of Sports and Politics, published by University Press of New England (2013).
The Steroids Era in baseball refers to the recent period in the MLB where many players and trainers have been found guilty or been implicated in the use of performance enhancing drugs which leads to sharp increases in player talent. The stigma associated with PED use, and also any other form of cheating, has proven to be a fast track to shame in the world of Major League Baseball. This article addresses the current state of defamation law in New York and the Federal Courts by analyzing the recent statement made by Skip Bayless concerning use of Performance Enhancing Drugs by Yankees' Shortstop Derek Jeter and the possibility that such statements could create tort liability. The article also considers the possible future paths of defamation law by comparing the level of protection the media enjoys today and the level of protection it may expect in the future.
Nidhi Garg writes an article about how design patent protection affects product lines and the average consumer. The analysis is done in light of the case between Apple and Samsung over patents relating to iPhones and iPads. The article focuses on design patent protection and how it has evolved over history. After an analysis of the laws, regulation, and case law related to design patents the article describes how consumers are affected by such changes. More particularly, how overreaching design patent protection may improve product lines and/or decrease innovation and product selection.
The legal status of gaming activities on First Nations land within Canada is complicated. The foci of this paper are two-fold. First, we trace the origin and expansion of First Nations gaming. Second, we analyze the potential of First Nations as hubs for the growing global e-gaming industry, with an emphasis on Internet poker and online sports wagering. We conclude by positing that the Canadian regulatory scheme presents an opportunity to First Nations in connection with e-gaming.
When Copyright Can Kill: How 3D Printers Are Breaking the Barriers Between “Intellectual” Property and the Physical World
This article examines copyright’s applicability to 3D printing technology, by analyzing the facts surrounding the (formerly) proposed development of a fully 3D printable firearm. Critical to this analysis however, is an understanding of how copyright has traditionally protected intellectual property, and why 3D printers do not fit into this conventional framework. As 3D printing is advancing at an extraordinarily rapid rate, any discussion of this topic would be incomplete without reference to the “moving target” that is 3D printing technology. In the short time between when this article was initially submitted for evaluation to the PIPSELF Law Forum in December 2012, and when it will be published in May 2013, many new uses for 3D printing have already been demonstrated, and indeed some of the issues discussed in this article have already become outdated, all within a six month timespan.
This article discusses at length, the efforts of the Defense Distributed project to develop a 3D printable firearm. When the article was originally submitted in 2012, Defense Distributed had already managed to prove the feasibility of using 3D printed firearms components, but the gun utilizing the printed component promptly broke apart after only successfully firing 6 shots. However, in February 2013, Defense Distributed released a new video, demonstrating a redesigned 3D printed component that was successfully used to fire over 600 rounds without a structural failure. Other recent developments in 3D printing include a company whose goal is to produce 3D printable cultured leather and edible meat products.
Finally, in January 2013, the organization Public Knowledge released a whitepaper entitled “What's the Deal with Copyright and 3D Printing?” written by Michael Weinberg. As both the whitepaper and this article discuss the same basic principles, but do so by analyzing slightly different areas of the law, I view the whitepaper as a companion piece to this article.
UPDATE (5/5/13): Defense Distributed has completed (and successfully test fired) the world’s first entirely 3D printed pistol.
UPDATE (5/10/13): In the timespan of a single week after the release of the first 3D printed pistol, the U.S. State Department has initiated procedures to force Defense Distributed to remove all its 3D printable gun components from the Internet, with the State Department claiming it needs to review the files for compliance with the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR). Further there are other measures being proposed by Congressman Steve Israel to outright ban 3D printed guns. However, considering that the 3D printable pistol was already downloaded over 100,000 times before the recent ITAR action, and the fact that the inherent design of the Internet means that many websites are foreign based, and therefore entirely outside the jurisdiction of the U.S., it appears to be an increasingly futile effort to force “removal” of these files from the Web. These files are still widely available on the Internet, and likely will continue to remain so, as websites like The Pirate Bay will continue to host & distribute 3D firearm files, regardless of any laws passed or litigation filed attempting to compel their removal.
Separation of Sport and State: The Federal Government’s Involvement in Major League Baseball’s Drug Testing Program
Major League Baseball has been one of the premier major sports leagues in taking action and putting an end to the use of performance-enhancing drugs in baseball. Entering its eighth year, Major League Baseball has implemented and improved its drug-testing policy. However, with congressional hearings on the use of steroids and other drugs in baseball along with federal investigations, there is a lingering worry that the government is intervening in Major League Baseball's drug testing program. In this article, Anthony Iliakostas breaks down Major League Baseball's drug testing program and how the U.S. government has gotten involved. The article concludes by answering the ultimate question: should the government intervene in Major League Baseball's drug testing program?
Levi Glick writes an article on the Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (“PASPA”), which in effect prohibits state-sanctioned sports betting within the United States. His article addresses the efforts by the State of New Jersey to establish state-sanctioned sports betting within the state, and the subsequent legal challenges brought forth by the professional sports leagues. He focuses on the legal arguments that New Jersey leveled in challenging the leagues’ alleged claims. He also focuses on the Constitutional arguments that weigh in favor of finding PASPA unconstitutional, as well as the public policy arguments for repealing it.
Danielle Meeks explores the recent trend of publishing fan fiction, brought to the forefront by the popularity of the Fifty Shades trilogy. Creating a work within another author's copyrighted fictional universe for profit is analyzed under the fair use doctrine and by comparing substantial similarities between Fifty Shades and the Twilight series to determine if the trilogy is transformative enough to survive a potential lawsuit.
The efficiency-driven economy of Turkey is growing at a very fast rate, but not yet considered to be at an innovative stage. One way of getting there is having a high presence of entrepreneurship. The aim of this research is to show that with improvements in the procedures to start a business and developments within the financial sector, Turkey will abound with entrepreneurial activity. The study first defines entrepreneurship and its relationship with society and the economy. Next, the report provides a summary of the process of entrepreneurship, its barriers to entry, its necessities, and its outcomes. From this, the research seeks to evaluate if Turkey is able to support a high volume of successful entrepreneurs. The research data is predominantly from GEM, OECD, Central Bank of Turkey, and the World Bank. Throughout the analysis, the report compares Turkish entrepreneurship with that of the US, Iran, and Hungary. The findings show that based on the attitudes of Turkey’s population and the growing rate of entrepreneurship, there is a high potential for entrepreneurial opportunities and advancement.
Remarks by Richard L. Ottinger on the occasion of the dedication of Richard Ottinger Hall at Pace Law School, April 30, 2013.