Nigel Yarlett

Nigel Yarlett

Dyson College of Arts and Sciences
Chemistry and Physical Sciences

Nigel Yarlett

41 Park Row


Personal Quote

"In the fields of observation chance favors the prepared mind." Louis Pasteur.

Faculty Bio

Awarded a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (2012); Fellow of the Society of Fellows of Pace University (1996); Hutner Prize in Protozoology (1995); Kenan Teaching Award (2003); Lady Glanely Scholarship (1978). Over 100 publications in the area of protozoan biochemistry. Demonstrated the presence of hydrogenosomes in Rumen protozoa and Rumen fungi. The role of oxygen in the resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole. The unique polyamine bichemistry of Trichomonas vaginalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The ability of oxoboroles to cure mouse model trypanosomiasis. Novel culture method for Cryptosporidium parvum. Funded by the National Institutes of Health; Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Awards and Honors

  • Royal Society of Chemistry, 2012, Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Pace University, 2003, Kenan Award for Teaching Excellence
  • Pace University, 1996, Fellow of the Society of Fellows of Pace University
  • International Society for Protistology, 1996, Hutner Prize
  • University of Wales, 1978, Lady Glanely Scholarship

Licensures and Certificates

  • NYSDOH, Radiation Safety Officer University RSO responsible for ensuring compliance with City, State and Federal guidelines. First responder in NYC for radiation emergency.


University of Wales Fellowship, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK, 1986
Biochemical Parsitology

Visiting Fellow, Cambridge University, United Kingdom, 1986
Anaerobic Biochemistry

Post-Doctoral, Rockefeller University, New York, 1984
Biochemical Cytology

PhD, Cardiff University/Hannah Research Institute, Cardiff, Wales/ Ayr, Scotland, 1982

BS, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK, 1979

Research and Creative Works

Research Interest

My Research is focused on the biochemistry and molecular biology of parasitic protozoa, particularly Cryptosporidia sp., and Trypanosomes. My research has resulted in the development of a new class of compound, the oxaboroles, to treat human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) that is currently in phase II clinical trials in Africa. I am also developing a novel culture system to facilitate the screening of novel compounds for the treatment of cryptosporidosis.

Grants, Sponsored Research and Contracts

Evaluation of a Continuous Culture System for Cryptosporidium sp
October 2014. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Private, $198,000.00. Funded.

S-adenosylmethionine inhibitors for the treatment of HAT
October 2010 - October 2014. NIH-NIAID, Federal, $300,000.00. Funded.

Novel Treatment of HAT
October 2004 - September 2014. Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative, Private, $1,780,000.00. Funded. Analysis of novel oxaborole's to cure a mouse model stage 1 and stage 2 infection.

Polyamine Inhibitors Targeting Microsporidia
April 2003 - March 2008. National Institutes of Health, Federal, $1,574,587.00. Funded. The microsporidia are a group of intracellular parasitic protozoa of the phylum microspora. These organisms are emerging as human pathogens primarily affecting immunosuppressed hosts (eg. those with AIDS). Pathogenic genera include Nosema, Encephalitozoon, Enterocytozoon, Brachiola and others. While human infections, particularly with the enteric pathogen Enterocytozoon bieneusi can be particularly devastating, effective, non-toxic chemotherapy for this and other microsporidial infections is lacking. In preliminary studies, we examined polyamine metabolism in the human pathogen Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and found the major natural polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine that are ubiquitous in cells and necessary for growth and division. We have found that certain classes of polyamine analogues, developed as antitumor agents, are growth inhibitors in vitro and curative in a murine model of Enc cuniculi infection. Although we have determined that Enc cuniculi pre emergent spores can synthesize polyamines from ornithine as well as take up spermine and back convert it to spermidine, we believe from this and related data, that spermidine uptake and interconversion and the primary means by which microsporidia aquire polyamines. We intend to continue our study of polymine metabolism, investigating polyamine uptake and interconversion through spermidine/spermine N1-acertyltransferase (SSAT)/polyamine oxidase (PAO) pathway and the mechanism of action of the polyamine analogues on Enc. cuniculi. This data can be used to guide our collaborating chemists in the synthesis of new agents. To accomplish this we intend to 1) define and characterize Enc. cuniculi SSAT/PAO, determining its inducibility, the effects of polyamine analogues on induction and the overall pathway; 2) define and characterize polyamine transport, particularly the structural limits of the sites and comparing known transporters from other systems to Enc. cuniculi; and 3) determine the mechanism of action of existing polyamine analogues curative for Enc. cuniculi, ie whether their metabolism by host or parasite enzymes is essential for activity. We believe that by integrating the results of the SSAT/PAO and uptake studies, we will be able to develop more potent and specific polyamine analogues as chemotherapeutic agents, identify other polyamine metabolic targets in the Microsporidia for chemotheraputic intervention, while providing basic information on the biochemistry and genomics of the obligate intracellular parasites.

Evaluation of protective efficacy of plant-produced target antigens against infections with Trypanosoma brucei in mouse model challenged with recombinant tubulins
April 2007 - February 2008. Fraunhofer USA CMB, Private, $63,250.00. Funded. The object of this pilot study is to determine the contribution of individual peptides to protective efficacy against Trypanosoma brucei in a mouse challenge model. This study will be conducted using 6-7 week old Swiss-Webster mice and will assist in the validation of a novel approach to engineering and producing a subunit vaccine against African trypanosomiasis

Polyamine Metabolism of Cryptosporidia: Rational Therapy
September 2001 - July 2005. National Institutes of Health - NCDDG -, Federal. Funded. The major goals of the project are to purify spermidine/spermine N-acetyl transferase and polyamine oxidase in Cryptosporidium parvum and to characterize polyamine transport as a potential target for chemotherapy.

Drug Development and Conservation of Biodiversity in West and Central Africa
May 1999 - April 2004. National Institutes of Health - ICBG, Federal, $1,500,000.00. Funded. As part of the Walter Reed Army Institute for Research International Collaborative Group, we examine extracts of exotic plants as well as local herbal medicines from West and Central Africa for growth inhibitory activity against Trypanosoma brucei, T. rhodesiense, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Tritrichomonas foetus.

Chemotherapy of Cryptosporidia using Polyamine Analogs
November 1999 - October 2000. National Institutes of Health - SBIR, Federal, $35,000.00. Funded. The major goal of the proposal is to synthesize and screen conformationally restricted polyamine analogs for ability to inhibit in vitro and in vivo growth of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Polyamine Inhibitors Targeting Microsporidia
August 1996 - July 2000. National Institutes of Health - NIAID - R-01, Federal, $1,503,578.00. Funded. Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore forming parasites infecting every major animal group, which have recently been identified as important opportunistic pathogens in AIDS. They are sufficiently unique to be classified in a separate phylum, the Microspora, which contains dozens of genera and hundreds of species. The majority of microsporidia infect the digestive tract and/or related organs, but reproductive, respiratory, excretory and nervous system infections are well documented as well as those in the eye, connective tissue, and muscle tissues. Benzimidazoles, notably albendazole, have been used for therapy of several human microsporidial infections with limited success.

Drug Discovery: Polyamine Metabolism of Cryptosporidium
September 1996 - May 2000. National Institutes of Health - NCDDG - R-01, Federal, $794,160.00. Funded. Cryptosporidium parvum is a severe opportunistic infection of AIDS patients which causes debilitating diarrhea. The disease is potentially lethal due to the lack of effective drugs to check its cholera-like effects. The lack of suitable drugs underlies the lack of knowledge of the parasites biochemistry. We have demonstrated that polyamine biosynthesis by C. parvum proceeds via arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and that back-conversion via spermidine:spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT)is also functioning. We propose to explore polyamine biosynthesis as a rational target for the development of anticryptosporidial agents. Support for this is based upon the following observations: extracts of C. parvum decarboxylate arginine and produce agmatine, whereas no decarboxylation of ornithine could be detected; decarboxylation of arginine was unaffected by DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), but was significantly inhibited by DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA); in vitro drug testing demonstrates significant growth inhibition of meronts and gametes by canavanine and DFMA, which are potent inhibitors of ADC: inhibitors of polyamine backconversion eg. diethylnorspermine and imipramine are effective in vitro growth inhibitors, combintions of ADC and SSAT inhibitors are synergistic inhibitors of in vitro growth. Any therapy aimed at blocking polyamine synthesis by this parasite must, therefore be aimed at both ends of the pathway. We therefore propose to study the biochemistry and molecular biology of the cryptosporidial ADC and SSAT as outlined in the specific aims with the objective of developing new and effective agents to treat this debilitating disease.

International Cooperative Biodiversity Grant
January 1994 - January 1998. Walter Reed Army Institute, Federal, $385,240.00. Funded. Test extracts prepared from the roots, stems, leaves and florets of plants collected from West Africa for ability to inhibit growth of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tritrichomonas fetus, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma rhodesiense strains.

S-adenosylmethionine and methylthioadenosine as drug targets in African trypanosomes
September 1992 - August 1995. World Health Organization, Private, $111,000.00. Funded. This proposal is a continuance of grant 890064 (to CJB) and seeks to develop trypanocidal agents selectively interfering with the metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) in drug resistant Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense.

Polyamine Biosynthesis and Metabolism in Trichomonas
September 1989 - August 1994. National Institutes of Health R-29, Federal, $467,602.00. Funded. Traditionally polyamine synthesis has been regarded as necessary for the generation of small quantities of amines for use as required co-factors in cell metabolism. There are, however indications that in Trichomonas vaginalis polyamine metabolism may have a major role in a) energy metabolism, b) as a means of conditioning the environment, c) as a factor in oxidative metabolism of the parasite.

Polyamines in Trypanosomes - Function and Metabolism
February 1989 - January 1994. National Institutes of Health - NIAID - R-01, Federal, $829,722.00. Funded. Polyamines are low molecular weight amines, necessary for growth and differentiation of cells. We established that an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) cures model infections of African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei ssp). Clinical trials (>200 cases) in West Africa indicate that DFMO is >90% effective against CNS disease refractory to Melarsoprol. Despite these advances there are concerns associated with further development of DFMO; a) early trials in East Africa indicated that DFMO-refractory strains of T. b. rhodesiense occur, b) prolonged DFMO treatment is required, and c) resistant strains will probably emerge in West Africa.

Development of Remote Sensing Methods for Identification and Monitoring Brown Tides
June 1988 - May 1989. NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, State, $28,369.00. Funded. Use satellite monitoring of brown tide movements to co-ordinate water sampling for HPLC analysis of brown tide pigments and electron microscopy for confirmed identification.

Courses Taught

Past Courses

BIO 480: Research in Biology
BIO 610: Biochem & Adv Molecular Bio
BMB 601: Graduate Colloquium
BMB 605: Scientific Communications
BMB 609: Special Topics in BMB
BMB 610: Seminar
BMB 620: Quantitative Methods
BMB 629: Molecular Biochemistry
BMB 710: Research I
BMB 711: Research II
BMB 712: Thesis Preparation
CHE 101: Introduction to Chemistry I
CHE 103: Elements of Chemistry I
CHE 107: Forensic Chemistry I
CHE 326: Biochemistry
CHE 326: Biochemistry (Lecture Only)
CHE 328: Advanced Biochemistry
CHE 329: Adv Biochemistry Laboratory
CHE 330: Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
CHE 395: Independent Study in Chemistry
CHE 480: Research in Chemistry
ENS 772: Thesis Preparation
ENS 792: Rsrch in Envrnmntl Sci I
ENS 793: Rsrch in Envrnmntl Sci II
ENS 798: Tpc: Environmental Science
FOR 503: Biochem & Molecular Biology
FOR 503: Biochemistry
FOR 799: Thesis II

Publications and Presentations


Continuous culture of Cryptosporidium parvum using hollow fiber technology
International Journal of Parasitology. Vol in press

Antioxidant defences of Spironucleus vortens: Glutathione is the major non-protein thiol.
(2014, August). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 196 (Issue 1) , pages 45-52.

Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway
(2014, June). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 195 (Issue 1) , pages 14-22.

New Developments in the Treatment of Late-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis
(2013). Timo Jager, Oliver Koch and Leopold Flohe (Eds.), Weinheim , Germany:Wiley-Blackwell. Vol 4 (Issue Trypanosomatid Disease: Molecular Routes to Drug Discovery) , pages 515-529.

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics utilizing unbound target tissue exposure as part of a disposition-based rationale for lead optimization of benzoxaboroles in the treatment of Stage 2 Human African Trypanosomiasis.
(2013, September). Parasitology. Vol 141 (Issue 1) , pages 104-118.

Cryptosporidium parvum induces an endoplasmic response in intestinal adenocarcinoma HCT-8 cell line.
(2013, August). Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol 288 (Issue 42) , pages 30356-64.

Antiparasitic Drug Discovery for the Polyamine Pathway
(2012). Patrick M. Woster and Robert A Casero, Jr (Eds.), Cambridge , United Kindom:Royal Society of Chemistry. (Issue 17) , pages 50-77.

Bis(oxyphenylene)benzimidazoles: a novel class of anti-Plasmodium falciparum agents.
(2011, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry. Vol 19 (Issue 24) , pages 7493-7500.

Benzoxaboroles: a new class of potential drugs for human African trypanosomiasis.
(2011, August). Future Medicinal Chemistry. Vol 3 (Issue 10) , pages 1259-1278.

SCYX-7158, an orally-active benzoxaborole for the treatment of stage 2 human African trypanosomiasis.
(2011, June). PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. Vol 5 (Issue 6) , pages e1151.

SAR of 2-amino and 2,4-diamino pyrimidines with in vivo efficacy against Trypanosoma brucei
(2011, May). Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Vol 21 (Issue 10) , pages 2816-2819.

Hydrogenosome-localization of arginine deiminase in Trichomonas vaginalis
(2011, March). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 176 , pages 51-54.

2,4-Diaminopyrimidines as potent inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei and identification of molecular targets by a chemical proteomics approach
(2011, February). PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease. Vol 5 (Issue 2) , pages e956.

Arginine metabolism in Trichomonas vaginalis infected with Mycolplasma hominis
(2010, December). Microbiology. Vol 156 (Issue 12) , pages 3734-3743.

Discovery of novel benzoxaborole-based potent antitrypanosomal agents
(2010, August). ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letts. Vol 1 (Issue 4) , pages 165-169.

Discovery of novel orally bioavailable oxaborole 6-carboxamides that demonstrate cure in a murine model of late-stage central nervous system african trypanosomiasis.
(2010, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 54 (Issue 10) , pages 4379-4388.

Synthesis and SAR of alkanediamide-linked bisbenzamidines with anti-trypanosomal and anti-pneumocystis activity
(2009, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Vol 19 (Issue 20) , pages 5884-5886.

Trypanocidal activity of 8-methyl-5'-{[(Z)-4-aminobut-2-enyl]-(methylamino)}adenosine (Genz-644131), an adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor.
(2009, August). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 53 (Issue 8) , pages 3269-3272.

Metabolism of an alkyl polyamine analog by a polyamine oxidase from the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi
(2009, June). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 53 (Issue 6) , pages 2599-2604.

Novel S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitors for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis
(2009, May). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 53 (Issue 5) , pages 2052-2058.

Mitochondrial Remnant in Blastocystis
(2008). Vol 114 (Issue 9) , pages 255-264.

Biochemical characterization of a mitochondrial-like organelle from Blastocystis sp. subtype 7
(2008, September). Microbiology. Vol 154 (Issue 9) , pages 2757-2766.

Trypanocidal activity of piperazine-linked bisbenzamidines and bisbenzamididoxime, an orally active prodrug
(2007, December). International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Vol 30 (Issue 6) , pages 555-561.

Mitochondrial Remnant in Blastocystis
(2007, December). J. Tachezy (Eds.), Berlin , Germany:Microbiology Monographs. Vol 9 , pages 255-264.

Cryptosporidium parvum spermidine/spermine N 1-acetyltransferase exhibits different characteristics from the host enzyme
(2007, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Molecular and biochemical parasitology. Vol 152 (Issue 2) , pages 170–180.

Divergent polyamine metabolism in the Apicomplexa
(2007, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Microbiology. Vol 153 (Issue 4) , pages 1123-1130.

Activities of DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine and polyamine analogues against Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a T-cell receptor alpha-deficient mouse model
(2007, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 51 (Issue 4) , pages 1234-1239.

Hydrogenosomes and Symbiosis
(2006). Jorg Overmann (Eds.), Berlin Heidelberg , Germany:Springer-Verlag. Vol 41 , pages 117-142.

Hydrogenosomes and symbiosis
(2006, May). Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Vol 41 , pages 117-142.

Hydrogenosomes: One Organelle, Multiple Origins
(2005, August). BioScience. Vol 55 (Issue 8) , pages 657-668.

Anaerobic protists and hidden mitochondria
(2004, May). Microbiology. Vol 150 (Issue 5) , pages 1127-1129.

Production of ammonia by Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis
(2004, May). Microbiology. Vol 150 (Issue 5) , pages 1139-1145.

Polyamine metabolism in a member of the phylum Microspora (Encephalitozoon cuniculi): effects of polyamine analogues
(2004, May). Microbiology. Vol 150 (Issue 5) , pages 1215-1224.

Polyamine metabolism in the Microsporidia
(2003, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Biochemical Society Transactions. Vol 31 (Issue 2) , pages 420-423.

Bacterial-like energy metabolism in the amitochondriate protozoon Hexamita inflata
(2003, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 128 (Issue 1) , pages 11-19.

Iron-dependent hydrogenases of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia: activity of the recombinant entamoebic enzyme and evidence for lateral gene transfer
(2003, February). Biological Bulletin. Vol 204 (Issue 1) , pages 1-9.

Polyamine metabolism as chemotherapeutic target in protozoan parasites
(2002, December). Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. Vol 2 (Issue 6) , pages 553-563.

Novel synthetic polyamines are effective in the treatment of experimental microsporidiosis, an opportunistic AIDS-associated infection
(2002, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 46 (Issue 1) , pages 55-61.

SL-11158, a synthetic oligoamine, inhibits polyamine metabolism of Encephalitozoon cuniculi
(2001). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol Suppl , pages 92S-94S.

Stage-specific polyamine metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi
(2001). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol Suppl , pages 201S-202S.

Polyamine synthesis and interconversion by the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi
(2001, May). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol 48 (Issue 3) , pages 374-381.

(2000). , pages 11 pages.

Dependence of Trichomonas vaginalis upon polyamine backconversion
(2000, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Microbiology. Vol 146 (Issue 10) , pages 2715-2722.

[(1)N,(12)N]Bis(Ethyl)-cis-6,7-dehydrospermine: a new drug for treatment and prevention of Cryptosporidium parvum infection of mice deficient in T-cell receptor alpha.
(2000, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 44 (Issue 10) , pages 2891-2894.

Inducible resistance to oxidant stress in the protozoan Leishmania chagasi
(2000, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol 275 (Issue 43) , pages 33883-33889.

Kinetics of methionine transport and metabolism by Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
(2000, May). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol 377 (Issue 1) , pages 49-57.

(1999). , pages 14 pages.

Polyamine synthesis in Encephalitozoon cuniculi.
(1999, September). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol 46 (Issue 5) , pages 31S.

Inhibition of polyamine synthesis arrests trichomonad growth and induces destruction of hydrogenosomes.
(1999, August). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 43 (Issue 8) , pages 1919-1923.

Kinetics of S-adenosylmethionine cellular transport and protein methylation in Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.
(1999, April (2nd Quarter/Spring)). Advances in Biochemistry and Biophysics. Vol 364 (Issue 1) , pages 13-18.

Reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
(1999, February). Microbiology. Vol 145 (Issue 2) , pages 301-307.

Expression of cardiac cytokines and inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice.
(1999, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Vol 31 (Issue 1) , pages 75-88.

Polyamine biosynthesis in Cryptosporidium parvum and its implications for chemotherapy.
(1997, September). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 88 (Issue 1-2) , pages 35-42.

Effects of carboxylmethylation and polyamine synthesis inhibitors on methylation of Trypanosoma brucei cellular proteins and lipids.
(1997, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol 44 (Issue 4) , pages 352-358.

Rapid methylation of cell proteins and lipids in Trypanosoma brucei.
(1997, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol 44 (Issue 4) , pages 345-351.

Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Induces Myocardial Nitric Oxide Synthase
(1997, June). Cardiovascular Pathology. Vol 6 (Issue 3) , pages 161-166.

A unique transporter of S-adenosylmethionine in African trypanosomes.
(1997, March). FASEB Journal. Vol 11 (Issue 4) , pages 256-260.

Cryptosporidium parvum: polyamine biosynthesis from agmatine.
(1996, September). Vol 43 (Issue 5) , pages 73S.

Polyamine metabolism as a therapeutic target for Microsporidia.
(1996, September). Vol 43 (Issue 5) , pages 96S.

The contribution of the arginine dihydrolase pathway to energy metabolism by Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1996, June). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 78 (Issue 1-2) , pages 117-125.

Crithidia luciliae: effect of purine starvation on S-adenosyl-L-methionine uptake and protein methylation.
(1995, December). Experimental Parasitology. Vol 81 (Issue 4) , pages 519-528.

Polyamine Metabolism
(1995). J. Marr and M. Muller (Eds.), Waltham, MA , USA:Academic Press Ltd. , pages 119-131.

Fate of soluble methionine in African trypanosomes: effects of metabolic inhibitors.
(1995, August). Biochemical Journal. Vol 309 (Issue 3) , pages 737-743.

Fermentation Product Generation in Rumen Chytridiomycetes
(1994). D.O. Mountfort and C.G. Orpin (Eds.), New York, NY , USA:Marcel Dekker Inc.. Vol 12 , pages 129-146.

Subcellular localization of the enzymes of the arginine dihydrolase pathway in Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.
(1994, November). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Vol 41 (Issue 6) , pages 554-559.

Parasite polyamine metabolism: targets for chemotherapy.
(1994, November). Biochemical Society Transactions. Vol 22 (Issue 4) , pages 875-879.

Antioxidant defences in the microaerophilic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis: comparison of metronidazole-resistant and sensitive strains.
(1994, September). Microbiology. Vol 140 (Issue 9) , pages 2489-2494.

Combination chemotherapy of drug-resistant Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections in mice using DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine and standard trypanocides.
(1994, March). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 38 (Issue 3) , pages 563-569.

Effects of antagonists of polyamine metabolism on African trypanosomes.
(1993, September). Acta Tropica. Vol 54 (Issue 3-4) , pages 225-236.

Resistance to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine by clinical isolates of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Role of S-adenosylmethionine.
(1993, August). Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 46 (Issue 3) , pages 471-481.

Trichomonas vaginalis: characterization of ornithine decarboxylase.
(1993, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Biochemical Journal. Vol 293 (Issue 2) , pages 487-493.

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei.
(1993, March). Biochim Biophys Acta. Vol 1181 (Issue 1) , pages 68-75.

Cure of murine Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections with an S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor.
(1992, December). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 36 (Issue 12) , pages 2736-2740.

Cultivation of Anaerobic Rumen Fungi
(1992). J. J. Lee and A. T. Soldo (Eds.), Lawrence, KS , USA:Allen Press. , pages A55.1-A55.5.

Inhibition of Trichomonas vaginalis ornithine decarboxylase by amino acid analogs.
(1992, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 44 (Issue 2) , pages 243-250.

Polyamine Metabolism in African Trypanosomes
(1991). Graham Coombs and Michael North (Eds.), Oxford , United Kindom:Taylor and Francis. , pages 469-481.

Polyamine Metabolism in Anaerobic Protozoa
(1991). Graham Coombs and Michael North (Eds.), Oxford , United Kindom:Taylor and Francis. , pages 458-468.

5'-Alkyl-substituted analogs of 5'-methylthioadenosine as trypanocides.
(1991, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol 35 (Issue 7) , pages 1315-1320.

Protein methylases in Trypanosoma brucei brucei: activities and response to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine.
(1991, March). Journal of General Microbiology. Vol 137 (Issue 3) , pages 717-724.

Differential sensitivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense isolates to in vitro lysis by arsenicals.
(1991, February). Experimental Parasitology. Vol 72 (Issue 2) , pages 205-215.

Hyperthermia studies in polyamine-altered human lung carcinoma cells.
(1990, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Radiation Research. Vol 124 (Issue 1) , pages S80-S87.

Polyamine biosynthesis and inhibition in Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1989, December). Parasitology Today. Vol 4 (Issue 12) , pages 357-360.

DNA and protein methyltransferase activities in Trichomonas vaginalis
(1989). D. Lloyd, G.H. Coombs and T.A. Paget (Eds.), Newark, NJ , USA:Harwood Academic Pub.. , pages 112-122.

Oxygen and aerotolerant protozoa: studies using non-invasive techniques
(1989). Newark, NJ , USA:Harwood Academic Pub.. , pages 1-21.

Hydrogen production by rumen holotrich protozoa: effects of oxygen and implications for metabolic control by in situ conditions.
(1989, March). Journal of Protozoology. Vol 36 (Issue 2) , pages 205-213.

Metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis maintain low intracellular metronidazole radical anion levels as a consequence of defective oxygen scavenging
(1988). Acta Universitas Carolinae - Biologica. Vol 30 (Issue 3) , pages 521-528.

Effect of DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine on polyamine synthesis and interconversion in Trichomonas vaginalis grown in a semi-defined medium.
(1988, October (4th Quarter/Autumn)). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 31 (Issue 1) , pages 1-9.

Effect of DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine on methionine cycle intermediates in Trypanosoma brucei brucei.
(1988, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 27 (Issue 1) , pages 1-10.

Respiration of the hydrogenosome-containing fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum
(1987). Archives of Microbiology. Vol 148 (Issue 1) , pages 25-28.

The effects of oxygen on fermentation in Tritrichomonas foetus KV1 and its variant 1MR-100 with defective hydrogenosomes
(1987). Journal of General Microbiology. Vol 133 (Issue 5) , pages 1181-1186.

Nitroimidazole and oxygen derived radicals detected by electron spin resonance in hydrogenosomal and cytosolic fractions from Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1987, July (3rd Quarter/Summer)). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 24 (Issue 3) , pages 255-261.

Activities of metronidazole and niridazole against Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates.
(1987, June). Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Vol 19 (Issue 6) , pages 767-770.

Reduction of niridazole by metronidazole resistant and susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1987, February). Parasitology. Vol 94 (Issue 1) , pages 93-99.

Cryopreservation of the anaerobic rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum
(1986). Letters in Applied Microbiology. Vol 3 , pages 1-3.

Inhibition of hydrogen production in drug-resistant and susceptible Trichomonas vaginalis strains by a range of nitroimidazole derivatives
(1986). Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 35 (Issue 1) , pages 61-64.

Hydrogenosomes in the rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.
(1986, June). Biochemical Journal. Vol 236 (Issue 3) , pages 729-739.

Metronidazole-resistant clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis have lowered oxygen affinities.
(1986, May). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. Vol 19 (Issue 2) , pages 111-116.

Ferredoxin-dependent reduction of nitroimidazole derivatives in drug-resistant and susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1986, May). Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 35 (Issue 10) , pages 1703-1708.

Inhibition of hydrogen production in drug-resistant and susceptible Trichomonas vaginalis strains by a range of nitroimidazole derivatives.
(1986, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol 35 (Issue 1) , pages 61-65.

Butyrate formation from glucose by the rumen protozoon Dasytricha ruminantium
(1985, May). Biochemical Journal. Vol 228 (Issue 1) , pages 187-192.

Reduction of nitroimidazole derivatives by hydrogenosomal extracts of Trichomonas vaginalis.
(1985, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitolology. Vol 14 (Issue 1) , pages 29-40.

Isolation and Characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin
(1984). Carlsberg Research Communication. Vol 49 (Issue 2) , pages 259-268.

Hydrogenosomes in known species of rumen entodiniomorphid protozoa
(1984, January (1st Quarter/Winter)). FEMS Microbiology Letters. Vol 21 (Issue 1) , pages 15-19.

Hydrogenosomes in a mixed isolate of Isotricha prostoma and Isotricha intestinalis from ovine rumen contents.
(1983). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. Vol 74B (Issue 2) , pages 357-364.

The presence of oxygen in rumen liquor and its effects on methanogenesis
(1983, August). Journal of Applied Microbiology. Vol 55 (Issue 1) , pages 143-149.

A note on the effect of oxygen on hydrogen production by the rumen protozoon Dasytricha ruminantium Schuberg
(1983, February). Journal of Applied Bacteriology. Vol 55 (Issue 2) , pages 359-361.

An improved technique for the isolation of holotrich protozoa from rumen contents by differential filtration with defined aperture textiles
(1982, June). Journal of Applied Microbiology. Vol 52 (Issue 2) , pages 267-270.

Oxygen affinities of the hydrogenosome-containing protozoa Tritrichomonas foetus and Dasytricha ruminantium, and two aerobic protozoa, determined by bacterial bioluminescence.
(1982, May). Journal of General Microbiology. Vol 128 (Issue 5) , pages 1019-1022.

Hydrogenosomes in the rumen protozoon Dasytricha ruminantium Schuberg.
(1981, November). Biochemical Journal. Vol 200 (Issue 2) , pages 365-372.

Effects of inhibitors on mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase of Crithidia fasciculata: an unusual pattern of specificities.
(1981, May). Molecular and Biochemical Parasitolology. Vol 3 (Issue 1) , pages 13-17.


Nitric Oxide Production by Trichomonas vaginalis
(2014, May). American Society for Microbiology (ASM), 114th General Meeting. American Society for Microbiology,

Nitric Oxide Production by Trichomonas Vaginalis
(2014, April). Second Annual Provost’s Research Day. Provost's Office,

Divergent Effects of Native and Oxidized Fatty Acids on Parasite Survival.
(2012, August). The 244th ACS National Meeting. . American Chemical Society,

The Oxidation of Specific Fatty Acids Modulates Parasite Survival
(2011, December). Annual Dyson College Science Poster Session. Dyson College,

The effect of oxidized and non-oxidized lipids on Trichomonas vaginalis
(2011, May). The American Society for Microbiology Conference. American Society for Microbiology,

Lipids and oxidized lipids: What effect do they have on invading pathogens?
(2010, December). Annual Dyson College Science Poster Session. Dyson College,

(2005, September). Polyamines in Parasites. PiP,

(2004, June). Polyamines in Parasites. PiP,

(2003, July). International Conference on Anaerobic Protists. ICAP and ISoP,

Professional Contributions and Service

Intellectual Property

Patent: Treatment of diseases caused by parasitic protozoa and fungal diseases by administration of 5'-deoxy-5'-(substituted) ethylthioribose compounds [Non-Provisional] , United States

Patent: Adenosine compounds for the treatment of diseases caused by parasitic protozoa [Non-Provisional] , United States

Patent: 5'Deoxy-5'-(substituted) alkylthioribose compounds and their pharmaceutical compositions. [Non-Provisional] , United States

Professional Memberships

  • Royal Society of Chemistry [Fellow]
  • New York Academy of Science
  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [Member]
  • International Society for Protistologists [Member at Large, Editorial Board, Treasurer]
  • Society for General Microbiology [Editor]